The following lines show the abstract of the article called “The Influence of Sex, Stroke and Distance on the Lactate Characteristics in High Performance Swimming ”. This article was written in English by Benjamin Holfelder, Niklas Brown adn Dieter Bubeck, and published in PLoS ONE 8(10): e77185. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077185
Background: In order to achieve world-class performances, regular performance diagnostics is required as an essential prerequisite for guiding high performance sport. In high performance swimming, the lactate performance diagnostic is an important instrument in testing the sport specific endurance capacity. Although the role of lactate as a signaling molecule, fuel and a gluconeogenic substrate is accepted, lactate parameters are discussed concerning stability, explanatory power and interpretability.
Methods: We calculated the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) of Bunc using the swimming-specific lactate threshold test by Pansold.
Results: The cross-sectional analysis (ANOVA) of n = 398 high performance swimmers showed significant effects for sex, stroke and distance on the IAT, the percentage of personal best time on the IAT (% of PB on IAT) and maximal lactate values (max. bLA). For the freestyle events the IAT decreased, % of PB on IAT and max. bLA increased from 100 to 400 m significantly in men and women. Women showed significantly higher % of PB on IAT with descriptive lower IAT in 7 of 8 analyzed events. Men showed significantly higher max. bLA in 5 of 8 events. In the second step, the analysis of 1902 data sets of these 398 athletes with a multi-level analysis (MLA) showed also significant effects for sex, swimming distance and stroke. For initial status and development over time, the effect sizes for the variables distance and sex were medium to large, whereas for stroke there were no or small effect sizes.
Discussion: These significant results suggest that lactate tests in swimming specifically have to consider the lactate affecting factors sex and distance under consideration of the time period between measurements. Anthropometrical factors and the physiology of women are possible explanations for the relative better performance for lower lactate concentrations compared to men.[/quote_box]
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